What is IBS?
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a medical condition consisting of a wide range of gut symptoms including bloating, diarrhoea, constipation, gas, tummy pain, cramps and spasms.
You might get all or just some of these, and your symptoms may come and go. But it’s often a lifelong condition with personal triggers that you’ll need to get to know in order to manage it.
IBS can be painful, feel embarrassing if your symptoms flare up at times you’d rather they didn’t, can affect your sleep, and lead to you feeling anxious and fatigued. If it goes untreated or carries on for a long time with a lot of flare-ups, it can mean you may need time off work, or end up avoiding social or stressful situations.
It’s a very common condition, affecting around 1 in 10 to 1 in 20 people. Experts believe the true figure may be even higher as some people don’t see a doctor about their symptoms. But with self-care, lifestyle changes and treatments to ease your symptoms – and knowledge of what to ask a doctor – you can learn to deal with it and get on with your life.
Here’s what you need to know about spotting IBS symptoms, getting a diagnosis and effective treatments, including psychological support.
What are the symptoms of IBS?
IBS symptoms include a range of gut issues. You might find you get 1 of the following symptoms more than others:
Other symptoms of IBS
- farting (
- back ache
- feeling tired and having no energy (fatigue)
- feeling sick (
- passing mucus from your bottom
- sudden urges to poo that you can’t control (
- needing to poo urgently
- straining or finding it difficult to poo
- urinary symptoms like needing to pee urgently or while sleeping at night
The different types of IBS
There are 4 different types of IBS, based on the kind of symptoms you have:
- IBS-C: constipation is the symptom you get the most
- IBS-D: diarrhoea is your most common symptom
- IBS-M: a mixture of diarrhoea and constipation
- IBS-U: unspecified (your symptoms are varied)
My IBS symptoms and how I got them under control
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What causes IBS?
The exact cause of IBS is still unknown, but it’s likely to be a mix of your family history (genetics) and environmental factors.
8 triggers and risk factors for IBS
Being female: Women with IBS usually outnumber men 2 to 1.
Being in your 20s: IBS can start at any age, but the most common time to have it is between your 20s and 30s.
Certain foods and drinks: 9 out of 10 people with IBS say particular foods and drinks can make their symptoms flare up.
Genetics: People with a parent or sibling with IBS have an almost 3-fold increase of getting IBS. Scientists think some people inherit genes that make it more likely, but they still haven’t identified which ones.
Infections: Having any stomach infections, including a bad tummy bug (
Your gut has its own nervous system (the enteric nervous system) that the brain communicates with via the brain/gut axis. This is a two-way communication channel linking the emotional and cognitive centres of your brain with your gut functions. So, if your emotional health needs some TLC, chances are you’ll feel it in your gut too.
Certain medicines such as antibiotics: The balance of bacteria in your gut can be disrupted by
Inflammation: If you have a more serious condition like
How does IBS affect my body?
There’s still a lot of research needed to find out exactly how IBS affects your body when it’s triggered by risk factors like the ones above. Some theories include that IBS is caused by or associated with:
- increased pain sensitivity in your internal organs, such as your intestines (known medically as visceral sensitivity)
- changes in your gut microbiome (the trillions of bacteria, viruses and fungi that live in your gut and play a very important role in your health, including helping digestion)
- abnormalities in your autonomic nervous system – this system controls your digestive system, as well as your breathing, heart rate, sensation and body temperature
- faulty processing of pain signals in your gut
- slow or fast movement of food through your digestive system (also known as gut motility)
What to do next
If you’re having symptoms and you’re not sure if you should see a doctor, using the Healthily
If you suspect your gut symptoms are IBS, it’s best to book an appointment with a doctor, but in somes cases, medicines and remedies you can buy from a pharmacy may help relieve your symptoms.
Pharmacy and doctor-prescribed IBS treatments
IBS remedies can be bought from pharmacies and supermarkets to ease a flare-up of your symptoms including constipation, diarrhoea, bloating and wind.
Your doctor may also recommend some of them if
IBS medicines and remedies
- laxatives: there are different types of
- antispasmodics (muscle relaxants): these include peppermint oil and mebeverine, which relieve muscle spasms and tummy cramps. Hyoscine butylbromide also relieves cramps and is available from pharmacies and supermarkets
- anti-diarrhoea treatments: these are medicines that slow down how fast food travels through your gut, allowing your poo to harden and become more solid. Popular medicines include loperamide. Read more about these in our in-depth article on
- anti-wind medicines: simeticone is a type of medicine that can help relieve trapped wind and bloating. It works by causing the small gas bubbles in your gut to form bigger bubbles, which then allows this trapped air to get out of your body more easily. When combined in a tablet with loperamide, it prevents farting. Read more about
Other medicines your doctor can prescribe
- Low-dose tricyclic antidepressants: These
- Linaclotide: If you’ve had severe constipation lasting more than 12 months, you can be prescribed a course of linaclotide, which works by increasing the amount of fluid in your intestines to ease the passage of poo.
Amitriptyline is not recommended if you are pregnant unless your doctor feels that the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. There is evidence that amitriptyline may pose a small risk of harm to your baby. If you are planning to become pregnant or find out that you are pregnant whilst taking this medication, speak to your doctor and midwife as soon as possible.
Red flag symptoms
If you have any of the symptoms below, see a doctor urgently, as they could be a sign of a serious underlying medical condition such as
- you’ve lost weight without meaning to
- you’re bleeding from your bottom or there’s blood in your poo
- if you’re over 60 and you’ve noticed a change in your bowel habits such as looser poo and/or more frequent pooing, lasting for more than 6 weeks
If you have IBS symptoms and a family history of bowel or
How is IBS diagnosed?
Unfortunately, there’s no single test for diagnosing IBS.
A doctor will usually start your appointment by asking about your symptoms, including how they’re affecting your daily life. They’ll also want to know what your diet is, how active you are and if you’ve had any recent stress or episodes of depression.
They’ll examine your tummy checking for any tenderness and lumps. They may also do a rectal exam, where they insert a gloved finger inside your bottom to check for any abnormalities.
Tummy pain, bloating or a change in your bowel habits for at least 6 months can lead to a diagnosis of IBS. A doctor will usually be able to diagnose IBS if you have tummy pain which is associated with the following:
- the tummy pain happens around the time you poo
- an increase or decrease in how many times you poo
- changes in the form or appearance of your poo (for example, it’s hard, lumpy or watery)
And if you also have at least 2 of the following symptoms:
- straining, urgency or not being able to pass all of the poo out of your bottom
- a bloated tummy which sticks out or is hard to the touch
- your symptoms get worse after eating
- passing mucus from your bottom
You may need to do some tests, including:
- poo tests to look for traces of blood and check for other conditions like IBD
- blood tests to rule out other conditions that cause IBS-like symptoms like
IBS treatment and relief
If you’re diagnosed with IBS, then your doctor may be able to classify it as one of the
8 IBS self-care tips
- Eat 3 regular meals a day and don’t skip meals or eat heavy meals late at night.
- Don’t drink more than
- Drink 8 cups of fluid a day (ideally water or decaffeinated teas or coffees).
- If you’re constipated, try self-care measures like going to the toilet whenever you need to and eating and going to the toilet at regular times. You could even try resting your feet on a low stool when you got to the toilet, as this could make it easier to poo. Ideally, your knees need to be raised above your hips. Read more about
- Consider a 4-week trial of probiotic supplements to see if they benefit your symptoms. Probiotics are ‘friendly’ live bacteria and studies suggest they may help relieve IBS symptoms like bloating. Read more about
- Deal with your stress and learn some relaxation techniques, as stress is a risk factor for developing IBS. One breathing technique that may help calm your digestive system is called belly breathing, or diaphragmatic breathing. You naturally breathe like this when you’re asleep, digesting food or when you’re very relaxed. It helps you tap into the part of your nervous system, which, among other things, keeps digestion smooth and helps you ‘rest and digest’. Read more about
- Take regular exercise – aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise a day. The theory is that exercise reduces gas retention in your intestine, and it also speeds up gut transit time (how long it takes for food to move from your mouth to your bottom) in people with constipation. Regular exercise is also good for reducing stress and boosting your mental health. Read more about
- If you’re overweight, try to lose weight, as being
IBS and food
- Drink to avoid constipation and bloating. Drink less caffeine,
- Eat less fibre. If you get diarrhoea, cut back on insoluble fibre found in wholemeal and high-fibre flours, cereals high in bran and wholegrains such as brown rice. Eat fruits with less fructose too, as high-fructose fruits can make it more likely you’ll get diarrhoea. You could also try the
- Eat more foods high in soluble fibre. If constipation is a problem, add soluble fibre such as oats or linseeds to your diet. Try adding a tablespoon of golden or brown linseeds to your cereal, yoghurt or soup, with 150ml of water. You can also fix constipation with a soluble fibre supplement (try ispaghula). Try increasing fibre gradually to minimise bloating and farting. And be patient as it can take several weeks before your symptoms improve. Read more about
- Don’t go heavy on fatty foods – avoid foods like chips, pies, butter, cheese, pizzas, creamy sauces and crisps. Studies have shown that eating fatty foods may be a trigger for IBS in some people, possibly because they may slow down the passage of gases in your bowel leading to bloating, or trigger the need to poo in some people.
- Eat less processed food and cook meals from scratch. Processed foods tend to have a lower fibre and higher fat content, so are more likely to cause constipation, trapped wind and bloating.
- Avoid sugar-free/zero-calorie sweets, mints, gum and drinks containing the artificial sweeteners sorbitol, xylitol and mannitol, if diarrhoea is your main symptom. They contain FODMAPs (sugars) which ferment in your bowel causing diarrhoea, bloating and gas.
- Limit caffeinated drinks such as tea and coffee to 3 cups a day if you have IBS-D. Caffeine can stimulate your colon and have a laxative effect, which may worsen diarrhoea and pain.
Complementary and psychological therapies for IBS
The following are not recommended by
Gut-directed hypnotherapy: This is a specific type of
The technique has been used widely, including within the NHS. A review of 7 trials conducted on its use concluded it was an effective and durable treatment but more research is needed, particularly as to whether it should be used on its own or in combination with other treatments.
A study by the University of Monash found gut-directed hypnotherapy was as effective as a low FODMAP diet in reducing IBS symptoms. However, you will need to find a hypnotherapist trained in this technique. Find a list of therapists at the
- Biofeedback: This is a method of conditioning your mind as well as your body to regulate your body’s functions. It’s a non-invasive therapy which uses computer-generated electrical signals, is used in many hospitals and is free of side effects.
It’s used to treat incontinence (the inability to hold gas or poo in your bottom) and certain types of constipation – you learn to strengthen and regain control of your anal sphincter muscle, which controls passing poo.
However, a high-grade review of studies found there isn’t enough evidence to recommend biofeedback in IBS, although the reviewers concluded that given the positive results in small studies, it deserves further study.
Watch this space
Lots of supplements are marketed for IBS, but few have a strong evidence base.
Curcumin (found in turmeric) was found in 1 review of studies to be associated with an improvement in symptoms, pain and quality of life, and was also safe and well-tolerated. But the effects were not much more than when taking a dummy pill (placebo). Even so, the researchers said further studies should be encouraged.
What if nothing works?
If dietary and lifestyle changes and medication aren’t working, or your symptoms are seriously affecting you, your doctor may decide to refer you to a gut specialist (gastroenterologist) for further tests and investigations, or to a dietitian for more detailed advice about food triggers and medically-supervised exclusion diets.
What else could it be?
Other conditions that produce IBS-type symptoms include:
- Coeliac disease – an autoimmune condition that causes symptoms like diarrhoea, constipation, excessive wind and bloating, plus anaemia or tiredness. Learn more about the
- IBD – there are 2 main types of IBD, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. They’re both long-term diseases that cause inflammation in the gut and IBS-like symptoms. Read more about the causes, symptoms and treatment options for
- Bile acid diarrhoea – if you have watery diarrhoea, you may have this condition (also known as bile acid malabsorption), which causes watery and smelly poo, cramps, bloating and farting. It’s a type of
- Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) – the medical term for when there’s an overgrowth of bacteria in your small intestine, which then ferments and produces gases. It can follow bowel surgery, be due to abnormal bowel contractions or be a side effect of the long-term use of medicines called proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). It can be treated with antibiotics, although it may come back again.
- Bowel cancer – also known as colorectal cancer, this cancer can cause diarrhoea, constipation, a change in your bowel habits, plus bleeding from your bottom, weight loss, anaemia and tummy pain. 40,000 new cases are diagnosed every year in the UK, many through screening programmes. Read more about
Complications of IBS
IBS can lead to a number of complications. These include:
mood disorders – having IBS can lead to
poor quality of life – people with severe IBS say they have a poor quality of life and have to take more time off work
Where to find out more about IBS
read the NHS leaflet,
contact the charity
check out this
buy a key from the
Your health questions answered
Is IBS a disability?
Under the UK’s Equality Act 2010, if your IBS affects your ability to do your job on a daily basis, it may be deemed to amount to a disability. The