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What is paralysis?

Paralysis is loss of the ability to move one or more muscles. It may be associated with loss of feeling and other bodily functions.

Paralysis is not usually caused by problems with the muscles themselves, but by problems with the nerves or spinal cord that the brain uses to control muscles. Therefore, a person with paralysis will usually have some form of nerve damage.

Classifying paralysis

Paralysis can either be localised, where a specific section of the body, such as the face or hand, is paralysed, or it can be generalised, where a larger area of the body is affected.

There are also a number of medical terms used to describe different types of paralysis. For example:

  • monoplegia – where one limb is paralysed
  • hemiplegia – where the arm and leg on one side of the body are paralysed
  • paraplegia – where both legs and sometimes the pelvis and some of the lower body are paralysed
  • tetraplegia – where both the arms and legs are paralysed (also known as quadriplegia)

Read more about

how paralysis is classified

What causes paralysis?

The three most common causes of paralysis are:

Sometimes, paralysis can also occur as a result of a number of other conditions such as

cerebral palsy
Guillain-Barré syndrome

Read more about the

causes of paralysis

Living with paralysis

The type and extent of paralysis will determine the impact it has on a person's quality of life and day-to-day activities.

For example, a person who has lower limb paralysis (paraplegia) will usually be able to lead a relatively independent and active life, using a wheelchair to carry out their daily activities.

However, a person with paralysis that affects both their arms and their legs (tetraplegia/quadriplegia) will need a great deal of support and it is unlikely they will be able to live without a dedicated carer.

Paralysis can also cause a number of associated secondary conditions, such as

urinary incontinence
(an inability to control the flow of urine) and
bowel incontinence
(where stools leak uncontrollably from the back passage). It may also affect sexual function in both men and women.

Generally, there is currently no cure for paralysis except in certain conditions. Therefore, in cases of permanent paralysis treatment aims to:

  • help a person live as independently as possible
  • address any associated complications that arise from paralysis, such as
    pressure ulcers
    (sores that develop when the affected area of tissue is placed under too much pressure)
  • address bladder and bowel problems that are secondary to paralysis
  • treat spasms and complications resulting from paralysis

Mobility aids, such as wheelchairs and orthoses, can help a person with paralysis.

Manual wheelchairs are designed for people with good upper body strength. Electric wheelchairs are designed for people with poor upper body muscle strength or paralysis in all four limbs.

Read more about wheelchairs and mobility scooters.

Orthoses are an alternative to wheelchairs. They are braces made of metal or plastic and designed to improve the function of a limb and compensate for muscle weakness.

Read more about

treating paralysis
and the
complications of paralysis

Paralysis, particularly if it is unexpected, can be a devastating and traumatic experience. Unsurprisingly, many people who are paralysed experience


However, research has shown most people with paralysis are eventually able to come to terms with the condition.

Symptoms of paralysis

Paralysis can be classified in a number of different ways. For example, it can be localised, affecting a particular part of the body, or generalised, affecting a wider area.

Localised and generalised paralysis

Examples of localised paralysis include:

  • facial paralysis – which is usually limited to one side of the face
  • paralysis of the hand
  • paralysis of the vocal cords – vocal cords are bands of tissue and muscle used to generate speech; paralysis usually only affects one vocal cord which means the person is able to speak but their voice will be hoarse

Examples of generalised paralysis include:

  • monoplegia – where one limb is paralysed
  • hemiplegia – where the arm and leg on one side of the body are paralysed
  • paraplegia – where both legs are paralysed, or sometimes the pelvis and some of the lower body
  • tetraplegia (also known as quadriplegia) – here both the arms and legs are paralysed

Temporary and permanent paralysis

Paralysis can either be temporary or permanent.

Bell's palsy
is a relatively common cause of temporary paralysis that causes temporary facial paralysis. Sometimes, paralysis that occurs after a stroke can also be temporary.

Paralysis caused by serious injury, such as a broken neck, is usually permanent.

Partial or complete paralysis

Paralysis can be:

  • partial – where there is some muscle function and sensation; for example, if a person can move one leg but not the other, or feel sensations such as cold and heat
  • complete – where there is complete loss of muscle function and sensation in affected limbs

Spastic or flaccid paralysis

Paralysis can be:

  • spastic – where muscles in affected limbs are unusually stiff or display spasms and movements are not under the control of the individual (read about
    spastic paraplegia
  • flaccid – where muscles in affected limbs are floppy and weak; muscles in flaccid paralysis may shrivel.

People with spastic paralysis may experience muscle weakness with spasms (involuntary muscle contractions). People with flaccid paralysis often experience muscle weakness without spasms.

In some conditions, such as

motor neurone disease
cerebral palsy
, it is possible to experience episodes of spastic paralysis followed by flaccid paralysis, or the other way around.

Levels of spinal cord injury

When assessing the extent of a spinal cord injury, it is a case of determining where on the spine the injury occurred, and how badly related nerves and muscles have been affected.

The spinal cord is measured using a number and lettering system based on the vertebrae (disc-shaped bones that help support the spine and neck).

Your spine is made up of 24 vertebrae in total, consisting of:

  • seven cervical vertebrae in the neck – measured as C1 to C7
  • 12 thoracic vertebrae in your chest area – measured as T1 to T12
  • five lumbar vertebrae in your lower back – measured as L1 to L5

People with a spinal cord injury between the C1 and C7 are likely to have paralysis in all four limbs (tetraplegia).

The extent of the paralysis and subsequent loss of muscle function will depend on how high up the injury occurred. For example:

  • someone with a C1-C4 spinal cord injury will have little or no movement in their limbs and will probably only be able to move their head and possibly their shoulders; they will also need a ventilator to assist their breathing
  • someone with a C7 spinal cord injury will be able to extend their elbows and may have some movement in their fingers
  • someone with a T2-T12 spinal cord injury will have fully functional muscles in the top half of their body but little or no function in their lower limbs and will need a wheelchair
  • someone with an L1-L5 injury could have limited movement in their hip, knees and feet, but is likely to need a wheelchair or other type of mobility aid, such as a walking frame

Causes of paralysis

The four most common causes of paralysis are stroke, head injury, spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis.


A stroke is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to your brain is disturbed.

Like all organs, to function properly the brain needs a constant supply of blood that contains oxygen and nutrients.

If the blood supply is restricted or stopped, brain cells will begin to die, which can lead to brain damage that often results in paralysis.

Read more about


Head injury

A severe head injury can cause brain damage. The brain's surface can tear or bruise as it bumps against the skull, damaging blood vessels and nerves.

Paralysis can occur if a part of the brain that controls specific muscles is damaged during a severe head injury. Damage to the left side of the brain can cause paralysis on the right side of the body, and damage to the right side of the brain can cause paralysis on the left side of the body.

Read more about severe head injury.

Spinal cord injury

The spinal cord is part of your central nervous system. It is a thick bundle of nerves that runs from your brain, down through the neck and spine, inside a canal of vertebrae.

Its main function is to transmit signals to and from the brain and body. For example, the spinal cord passes nerve signals, such as hot or cold sensations, back to the brain.

If the neck or spine is injured, the spinal cord can also be damaged. This means the brain may no longer be able to transmit signals to the muscles, causing paralysis.

The exact location where the spinal injury occurs can have a significant effect on how severe and wide- ranging the paralysis is. The higher up the spine the injury occurs, the worse the paralysis will be.

For example, an injury in the middle of the spine will usually cause paraplegia (paralysis of the lower limbs). A neck injury, such as a broken neck, will usually result in tetraplegia (paralysis in all four limbs, also known as quadriplegia), as well as a loss of normal lung function, which means the person will need to use a ventilator to breathe.

Read more about

how the level of spinal cord injury is determined

The most common causes of spinal cord injury are:

  • motor vehicle accidents
  • accidents while working
  • accidents during sports or other types of activity
  • falls
  • spinal cord paralysis due to disease rather than injury

The nature of these causes means that most spinal cord injuries occur in men (who account for 80% of all cases) and younger people. An estimated half of all spinal cord injuries occur in people who are 16-30 years of age.

Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition where nerve fibres in the spinal cord become damaged by the immune system (the body’s natural defence against infection and illness).

The immune system mistakenly attacks a substance called myelin, which surrounds nerve fibres and helps with the transmission of nerve signals. In MS, the myelin around the nerve fibres becomes damaged, which disturbs the messages coming to and from the brain. This can result in paralysis.

Read more about

multiple sclerosis

Less common causes of paralysis

There are also a number of less common causes, these are listed below.


Cancers that develop in the brain, such as a high-grade

brain tumour
, can cause paralysis, usually on one side of the body.

Alternatively, cancers can spread (metastasis) from other parts of the body into the brain or spinal cord, leading to paralysis.

Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy is a set of neurological conditions (those that affect the brain and nervous system) that affect a child's movement and co-ordination.

Cerebral palsy is caused by brain damage which usually occurs before, during or soon after birth. Some possible causes of cerebral palsy include:

  • infection during early pregnancy
  • a difficult or premature birth
  • bleeding in the baby’s brain
  • abnormal brain development in the baby

The most severe type of cerebral palsy is called spastic quadriplegia, where a person has such a high degree of muscle stiffness (spasticity) in all of their limbs they are unable to use them.

Read more about

cerebral palsy

Friedreich’s ataxia

Friedreich’s ataxia is a rare genetic condition. It is caused by a mutation in a gene known as the GAA gene.

The mutation results in the body not producing enough frataxin which is a protein. Frataxin is thought to play a role in the regulation of iron levels inside nerve cells.

Due to the lack of enough frataxin being produced, the level of iron and other toxic substances starts to build up inside the nerve cells, damaging them.

Many people with Friedreich’s ataxia experience a gradual increase of paralysis in their legs. They will eventually need to use a wheelchair or some other type of mobility aid.

Guillain-Barré syndrome

Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare and poorly understood condition caused by peripheral nervous system damage. The peripheral nervous system is the network of nerves that controls the body's senses and movements.

In Guillain-Barré syndrome, the body's immune system attacks the nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which causes them to become inflamed.

This nerve damage results in a tingly, numb sensation in the arms and legs, which can eventually lead to temporary paralysis of the arms, legs and face.

Most people with Guillain-Barré syndrome make a full recovery in a few weeks or months and do not experience any other associated problems.

Read more about

Guillain-Barré syndrome

Lyme disease

Lyme disease is a bacterial infection spread to people by infected ticks.

Ticks are small insects that feed on the blood of mammals, including humans. The ticks release bacteria that can damage the nerves, leading to temporary paralysis of the face.

Read more about

Lyme disease

Motor neurone disease

Motor neurone disease (MND) is a rare, incurable condition. Over time, the nerves in the brain and spine gradually lose function (neurodegeneration).

Nerve cells known as motor neurones are affected by MND. Motor neurones are specialised nerve cells that control voluntary muscle movements, such as walking. MND causes progressive muscle weakness, which eventually leads to total body paralysis.

Read more about

motor neurone disease

Spina bifida

Spina bifida is a term that describes a series of birth defects that affect development of the spine and nervous system.

Myelomeningocele is the most serious type of spina bifida, occurring in one in every 1,000 births. It causes extensive damage to the nervous system which can often result in partial or total permanent paralysis of the lower limbs.

Read more about

spina bifida

Diagnosing paralysis

Diagnosing paralysis is not usually necessary if the cause is obvious – for example, if paralysis has occurred after a stroke.

If tests are needed to help diagnose paralysis, the type of tests required will depend on the underlying cause.

Some tests used to help determine the extent of paralysis include:

  • X-ray
    – where small doses of radiation are passed through your body to create an image of the denser areas, such as your bones; X-rays can be a useful way of assessing damage to your spine or neck
  • CT scan
    – where a computer is used to assemble a series of X-ray images to build up a more detailed picture of your bones and tissue; CT scans are often used to assess the extent of damage after a
    severe head injury
    or spinal cord injury
  • MRI scan
    – which uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to produce a detailed image of the inside of your body; an MRI scan can help detect brain damage or spinal cord damage
  • myelography – a way of checking the nerve fibres in your spinal cord in more detail (a special fluid called contrast dye is injected into the nerves which makes them show up very clearly on an X-ray, CT scan or MRI scan)
  • electromyography – where sensors are used to measure the electrical activity in your muscles and nerves; electromyography is often used to diagnose
    Bell’s palsy
    (temporary facial paralysis)

Treatment for paralysis

There is currently no cure for permanent paralysis. The aim of treatment is to help a person adapt to life with paralysis by making them as independent as possible.

Another important goal of treatment is to address health problems and associated complications that arise from paralysis, such as

pressure ulcers

Various treatment options and aids available for people with paralysis are described below.

Mobility aids

A range of mobility aids, such as wheelchairs, are available for people with paralysis.


There are two main types of wheelchair:

  • manual wheelchairs – designed for people with good upper body muscle strength
  • electric wheelchairs – designed for people with poor upper body muscle strength or quadriplegia (paralysis in all four limbs)

There is also a relatively new type of wheelchair known as a standing chair, which functions like a wheelchair but allows the person to rise to a standing position. This helps to reduce their risk of developing pressure sores. However, standing chairs can be expensive and are heavier than standard chairs.


Orthoses are an alternative to wheelchairs. They are braces usually made of plastic or metal designed to improve the function of a limb and compensate for muscle weakness.

Examples of orthoses include:

  • wrist-hand orthoses – designed to transfer force from a functioning wrist to paralysed fingers
  • ankle-foot orthoses –- designed for people with some lower limb function to help them move their feet while walking
  • knee-ankle-feet orthoses – designed for people with tetraplegia (paralysis in the lower limbs, also known as quadriplegia) to stabilise the knee and ankle and let them swing their legs when walking

A neuroprosthesis is a newer type of orthosis. Neuroprotheses are based on a technique called functional electrical stimulation (FES). FES uses electrodes (small, metallic discs stuck to your skin) to deliver electrical currents to muscles in the legs or arms. The currents stimulate the muscles to move in the same way that the brain would normally.

FES is not suitable for people with conditions that directly damage the nerves in the legs, such as

motor neurone disease
Guillain-Barré syndrome
. This is because the nerves will not react to the electrical currents.

Using orthoses can be physically demanding so they may not be suitable for everyone. Alternatively, you may decide to use both a wheelchair and an orthosis.

Assistive technology

There is also a wide range of assistive technology that can help a person with paralysis maintain their independence and improve their quality of life. Examples include:

  • environmental control units – voice-activated control units you can use to control things such as lighting, temperature or the telephone in your home
  • specially adapted computers – such as voice-activated computers, special keyboards that can be controlled using a stick placed in the mouth, and cursors that can be controlled with a laser beam attached to the head


It may be possible for you to drive a car, even if you have limited muscle function in your hands and arms.

Devices can be used to adapt the controls of a car to meet the needs of a person with paralysis. For example, the pedals can be replaced with levers or an electrical switching system, and the steering wheel adapted so you steer using your wrists or arms rather than having to grip it with your hands.

Bladder and bowel management

Almost all types of spinal cord injury and many types of generalised paralysis result in the loss of normal bowel and bladder function. This is because nerves that control the bowel and bladder are located at the base of the spinal cord.

Most people use a catheter to empty urine from their bladder. A catheter is a thin, flexible tube inserted into the urethra (the opening in the penis or vagina that urine flows out of), or through a hole in the abdomen (tummy). The catheter is then guided into the bladder, allowing urine to flow through it and into a drainage bag.

There are many methods that can be used to manage a paralysed bladder. The recommended method will depend on your ability, the state of your bladder and resources available.

It is important to ensure your bladder is emptied regularly because an overly full bladder can trigger a serious complication called

autonomic dysreflexia
in high spinal cord injuries.

Read more about

urinary catheterisation

There are two main treatment options to help people with paralysis empty their bowel:

  • bowel retraining – which aims to improve the consistency of your stools and establish a regular time to empty your bowel, as well as helping you find ways of stimulating your bowel to empty
  • alternative methods such as enemas – where liquid is injected into your bowel to help stimulate it to empty
  • a colostomy – which is an operation where a section of the bowel is diverted and attached to an opening in the abdominal wall

Read more about

bowel incontinence

Neuropathic pain

Neuropathic pain is pain caused by nerve damage. Many people with a spinal cord injury, and some with other types of paralysis, have long-term pain that persists for weeks, months or sometimes years after the injury or incident that caused the paralysis.

Unlike most other types of pain, neuropathic pain does not usually respond well to ordinary painkillers, such as

. Alternative medications are usually required, such as amitriptyline or pregabalin.

These types of medication can cause a wide range of side effects, so it can take time to identify one that is suitable and effective in controlling your symptoms without causing unpleasant side effects. Possible side effects include a dry mouth, sweating, drowsiness and vision problems.

There have been reports of people having suicidal thoughts while taking amitriptyline. If this happens, you should contact your doctor or go to your nearest hospital immediately.

It may be helpful to tell a relative or close friend you are taking amitriptyline, and to ask them to let you know if they notice any changes in your behaviour.

Breathing difficulties

If you have had a spinal cord injury to the upper neck, your diaphragm will be paralysed. The diaphragm is a thin dome-shaped muscle that helps you breathe in and out.

As your diaphragm will not be able to help you breathe, you will need breathing assistance from a ventilator. A ventilator is a machine that carries out the job of the diaphragm by controlling lung pressure.

This can be done in one of two ways, using either a:

  • negative pressure ventilator – where the ventilator creates a vacuum (a total lack of air) around the lung, which causes your chest to expand and pull in air
  • positive pressure ventilator – where the ventilator pushes oxygen directly into your lungs

Positive pressure ventilators are more widely used because they are usually smaller and more convenient. A positive pressure ventilator can either be:

  • invasive – where an incision is made in the throat and a tube inserted into the trachea (windpipe)
  • non-invasive – where a tube is inserted into the nose, or air is supplied through a mouthpiece

A non-invasive ventilator system carries a smaller risk of causing a lung infection, such as

. However, non-invasive ventilators are not suitable for people with more extensive paralysis who have difficulty swallowing.

An alternative to using a ventilator is a device called a phrenic nerve stimulator. The phrenic nerve controls the diaphragm. The device is surgically implanted in the chest and sends regular electrical impulses to the phrenic nerve, causing the diaphragm to contract and expand and fill the lungs with air.

Reduced cough

Another problem that affects most people with paralysis is their ability to cough is reduced. This is because the cough reflex is triggered by muscles in the abdomen (tummy) and between the ribs, pressing down onto the lungs. If these muscles are paralysed, the force of a person's cough can be greatly reduced.

This is potentially serious because a person's ability to cough enables them to clear their lungs of a build-up of mucus and other secretions. A reduced cough can cause the lungs to become congested, increasing the risk of a lung infection.

One technique used to compensate this is known as an assisted cough. It involves a relative or carer pushing against the outside of your stomach while you attempt to cough.

There are also a number of devices available to help you cough. They usually consist of vests that can contract (squeeze) against your lungs, compensating for the loss of muscle action.

It is important you take these precautions to reduce your risk of developing a lung infection.

  • Sit up every day and turn regularly while lying down to prevent a build-up of phlegm
  • Make sure you cough regularly
  • Drink plenty of water to dilute any phlegm and make it easier to cough up
  • Avoid smoking or being in close contact with people who smoke
  • Get the flu vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination because they help reduce your risk of developing influenza and pneumonia

Spasticity and muscle spasms

Spasticity is a medical term that means abnormally stiff and rigid muscles. Many people with paralysis develop spasticity and involuntary muscle spasms (where muscles cramp and contract).

Spasticity and muscle spasms are usually caused by the section of the spinal cord below the point of the injury ‘misfiring’ and sending abnormal signals to the limbs.

In some cases, spasticity and muscle spasms can be useful. For example, if you have partial paralysis in your legs, the stiffness in your muscles may make your legs easier to control. Some people also find that a series of muscle spasms make it easier for them to empty their bladder or bowel.

However, in other cases, spasticity and muscle spasms can be painful, affect mobility and interfere with daily activities. Treatments for spasticity and muscle spasms are discussed below.

Muscle relaxants

The first type of medication you may be prescribed is a muscle relaxant, such as Baclofen,Tizanidine or Dantrolene , usually taken in tablet form. Sedatives like Diazepam should be avoided except in severe cases. All these medicines may cause sedation as a side effect.

Botulinum toxin

If muscle relaxants are not effective, an injection of botulinum toxin (Botox) may be given for localised spasms. It works by blocking the signals from the brain to the affected muscles.

The effects of the injection usually last for up to three months. The treatment is most effective when used in conjunction with a programme of stretching and physical therapy.

Intrathecal baclofen therapy

Another possible treatment is intrathecal baclofen therapy. This involves surgically implanting a small pump on the outside of the body connected to the spinal cord.

The pump delivers regular doses of a medicine called Baclofen directly to the spine. It blocks some of the nerve signals that cause muscle stiffness.


If you are paralysed it is important you take measures to prevent getting pressure ulcers.

Regular pressure relief in the wheelchair or in bed is essential to prevent pressure sores.

Skin care and pressure ulcers

Taking care of your skin is important if you have paralysis as you have an increased risk of developing a pressure ulcer.

Pressure ulcers develop when sustained pressure interrupts the blood supply to parts of the body. Blood contains oxygen and other nutrients required to keep tissue healthy. Without a constant supply of blood, tissue damage occurs and the tissue will eventually die.

Pressure ulcers do not develop in people with normal mobility because the body's regular movements stop pressure building up on any one part of the body. For example, when you are asleep you may think you are lying still, but you will probably shift position up to 20 times a night.

If a person is unable to move regularly due to paralysis, pressure ulcers can quickly develop, sometimes over the course of a few hours.

Changing your position regularly is an effective way of preventing pressure ulcers. As a general rule, wheelchair users should change their position at least once every 15-30 minutes.

If you need to stay in bed, you should change your position at least once every two hours. If you are unable to change position yourself, a carer or relative can assist you.

Special cushions, mattresses and other pressure-relieving devices are also available to help reduce pressure on your affected limbs.

It's also important to keep the skin in the affected area clean and dry. Wet skin is more vulnerable to damage from sustained pressure.

Regularly check your skin for any signs of pressure ulcers. They usually begin as an area of red, unbroken skin that either feels warm and spongy or, alternatively, hard to the touch.

You can usually prevent affected skin from getting worse by keeping it clean and not putting undue pressure on it until it has healed.

If the skin has broken, or looks like an open wound or blister, you should contact your care team for advice.

Read more about

pressure ulcers


If you are paralysed, if possible, it is important to exercise regularly and achieve a good level of fitness. The reasons for this are:

  • the fitter you are, the better your general level of health will be and the lower your risk of developing complications
  • regular exercise will help improve your bladder and bowel function.
  • improved muscle strength will make it easier for you to use a wheelchair or orthosis and prevent problems associated with using mobility devices, such as shoulder or arm pain
  • maintaining a certain amount of muscle strength will prevent your muscles in the affected limbs becoming severely weakened

In the first few days or weeks after the accident or injury that caused your paralysis, or as part of your long-term treatment plan, you will be introduced to a physiotherapist (a specialist in physical rehabilitation and exercise).

Your physiotherapist will discuss different exercises and activities you can do. Depending on the extent of your paralysis, recommended exercises and activities may include:

  • weightlifting (an excellent way to improve upper body strength)
  • hand cycling (arm cycles are specially designed bicycles powered by turning handles with your hands rather than pedals with your feet)
  • horse riding
  • wheelchair basketball
  • wheelchair racing
  • wheelchair tennis

If your paralysis is so severe you are unable to carry out any voluntary exercise, functional electrical stimulation (FES) may be recommended. FES uses electrodes (small, metallic discs placed on your skin) to deliver electrical currents to the muscles in your legs or arms to stimulate movement.

You can

read more about FES in the treatment section

People with extensive paralysis can use a FES bike to exercise. It is similar in appearance to a normal indoor exercise bike, but has a series of electrodes attached to your legs. These stimulate your muscles so you are able to turn the bike's pedals.

Complications of paralysis

A person with paralysis can develop a number of complications, including autonomic dysreflexia, sexual problems and depression.

Autonomic dysreflexia

Autonomic dysreflexia is a potentially life-threatening complication. It can affect people with paralysis as a result of a spinal cord injury at the middle of the chest or higher. It is commonly seen in tetraplegia (where both the arms and legs are paralysed, also known as quadraplegia).

Autonomic dysreflexia is caused by a problem with the autonomic nervous system, the part of your nervous system that regulates many of the body's functions you don't have to think about, such as blood pressure, digestion and breathing.

Autonomic dysreflexia occurs when something interferes with the normal function of your autonomic nervous system. Your nervous system will send a signal to your brain to find out how to deal with the irritant. However, due to the injury in your spinal cord, the signal will be unable to reach your brain.

The blocked signal will then trigger a series of abnormal reflexes, which cause your autonomic nervous system to raise your blood pressure and slow your heartbeat.

Symptoms of autonomic dysreflexia

Signs and symptoms of autonomic dysreflexia include:

  • a severe, pounding headache
  • an intense feeling of anxiety and apprehension
  • intense sweating above the level of your injury
  • tightness in your chest
  • red blotches on your skin above the level of your injury
  • slow heartbeat (less than 60 beats a minute)
  • dilated (widened) pupils
  • goosebumps
  • high blood pressure

If it is not treated, autonomic dysreflexia can cause seizures and bleeding inside the brain, which can be fatal.

Triggers of autonomic dysreflexia

The most common trigger of autonomic dysreflexia is a problem with the bladder such as:

  • a
    urinary tract infection
    – an infection of the kidneys, bladder, ureter or urethra
  • too much urine in the bladder
  • blocked catheter (the tube used to drain the bladder)
  • the bag used to drain the bladder being too full
  • bladder stones

Other triggers for autonomic dysreflexia include:

Treating autonomic dysreflexia

The first thing to do if you suspect autonomic dysreflexia is to sit up (if possible) or raise your head upright. You should also lower your legs if you can.

Identifying the trigger is the next important step. The most common trigger is a bladder problem so you should check your catheter system first. Check whether:

  • your catheter is blocked or twisted
  • your drainage bag is full
  • the catheter is fully inserted into the drainage bag
  • the drainage bag is higher than your bladder

If you have a full bladder or are unable to pass urine, and you do not have a catheter attached, you may need urgent

urinary catheterisation

If your bladder does not appear to be the trigger, check your bowel next. Use your finger or ask your trained carer to do so to check whether there are any hardened stools in your back passage. The use of lubricated gloves is recommended.. Any large, hard stools detected should be gently removed.

If neither your bladder or bowel seem to be the trigger, check your skin for any pressure ulcers or an ingrown toenail. Loosen any clothing from skin or toes that appear damaged.

If you are unable to identify the trigger or relieve the symptoms using the advice above, contact your care team immediately. If this is not possible, call NHS Direct on 0845 4647.


Coming to terms with paralysis, particularly if it occurred suddenly and unexpectedly, can be difficult and traumatic. Many people go through the classic stages of grief, as described below:

  • denial – initially, you may refuse to believe your condition is incurable and think you will be able to continue with your former lifestyle
  • anger – you may lash out at friends, family or medical staff
  • bargaining – you may try to bargain with your doctors, asking for any sort of ‘miracle cure’
  • depression – you may lose all interest in life and feel your situation is hopeless.
  • acceptance – in time, most people come to terms with being paralysed and begin to adapt to living with the condition

Some people with paralysis find it difficult to reach the acceptance stage and continue to be depressed. It is estimated that about 20-30% of people with permanent paralysis are affected by depression.

It is important not to ignore any signs or symptoms of depression. As well as affecting your rehabilitation, symptoms of depression can also quickly worsen if they are not treated promptly. Read more about


People who experience depression after paralysis usually come to terms with the condition. One study which looked at people living with paraplegia (paralysis of the lower limbs) for many years found 83% reported having either an above-average or average quality of life.

Sex life and fertility

Paralysis can often have an impact on a person's sex life and [fertility]. However, even if you have severe paralysis it does not necessarily mean you will be unable to have children or sexual intercourse.

Paralysis can sometimes affect a man’s ability to get and maintain an erection and his ability to ejaculate sperm.


There are two types of erection:

  • a reflex erection – caused by something touching your penis or other sensitive part of your body
  • a psychogenic erection – caused by sexual thoughts or looking at sexually explicit images

As the nerves that control the reflex erection are located at the base of your spine, your ability to achieve this type of erection will usually be retained even if your paralysis is severe.

However, the nerves that control a psychogenic erection are located much higher up the spine, so men with high-level partial paralysis and almost any type of complete paralysis are unlikely to be able to have a psychogenic erection.

If you are only able to have a reflex erection, it will still be possible for you to have sex, although you may find it difficult to maintain an erection for a prolonged period of time. This is known as erectile dysfunction.

Treatment options for erectile dysfunction include medication, such as sildenafil (Viagra), which increase the blood flow to your penis, and penis pumps, which create a vacuum and cause blood to flow to your penis.

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The type and location of your paralysis will also affect whether you will be able to ejaculate sperm.

If you lose the ability to ejaculate but you want to have children, a number of different techniques can be used to obtain a sperm sample. The sample can then be used in fertility treatment, such as intrauterine insemination (where a sample of sperm is implanted into a woman’s womb through a tube).

A widely used technique is known as penile vibratory stimulation (PVS), where a specially designed vibrator is placed against the underside of the penis. The vibrator stimulates the nerve endings of the penis, triggering ejaculation. The process usually takes about 10-30 minutes to complete.

As it is important to store the sperm sample as quickly as possible, PVS is usually carried out in the private room of a fertility clinic.

If PVS is unsuccessful, an alternative technique known as rectal probe electroejaculation (RPE) can be used. Again, RPE will usually be carried out in a fertility clinic.

During RPE, an electric probe will be inserted into your rectum (back passage). The probe delivers a small electrical pulse to the rectum, which stimulates the nerves and triggers an ejaculation. The sperm can then be collected.


In women with paralysis, physical libido (sex drive) and fertility are usually unaffected.

Many women may experience a reduction in their sex drive due to concerns about their body image or having to use a bladder or bowel control system.

You will probably find your vagina no longer becomes lubricated when you are sexually aroused. This is because nerves located higher up the spine trigger the process of lubrication. You can compensate for this by using an artificial water-based lubricant, such as KY jelly. Do not use petroleum jelly (Vaseline) because it will irritate your vagina.

There is usually no reason why a woman who is paralysed and pregnant cannot have a vaginal delivery during childbirth.

Pregnant woman with a spinal cord injury at T6 or higher have an increased risk of developing autonomic dysreflexia, so it is important to be aware of the symptoms (see above) and, if you experience them, inform your doctor or midwife immediately.

Important: Our website provides useful information but is not a substitute for medical advice. You should always seek the advice of your doctor when making decisions about your health.