Respiratory tract infection

4 min read

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are any infection of the sinuses, throat, airways or lungs.

They're usually caused by viruses, but they can also be caused by bacteria.

Respiratory tract infections are believed to be one of the main reasons why people visit their doctor or pharmacist. The most widespread respiratory tract infection is the

common cold

Health professionals generally make a distinction between:

  • infections of the upper respiratory tract, which affect the nose, sinuses and throat
  • infections of the lower respiratory tract, which affect the airways and lungs

Children tend to get more upper RTIs than adults because they have not yet built up immunity (resistance) to the many viruses that can cause these infections.

This page:

  • explains how RTIs spread
  • links to detailed information on the common upper and lower RTIs
  • provides advice on caring for your symptoms at home and when you should see your doctor

How respiratory infections spread

RTIs can spread in several ways. If you have an infection such as a cold, tiny droplets of fluid containing the cold virus are launched into the air whenever you sneeze or cough. If these are breathed in by someone else, they may also become infected.

Infections can also be spread through indirect contact. For example, if you have a cold and you touch your nose or eyes before touching an object or surface, the virus may be passed to someone else when they touch that object or surface.

The best way to prevent the spread of infection is to practice good hygiene, such as regularly washing your hands with soap and warm water.

Upper respiratory tract infections

Common upper respiratory tract infections include:


is the most common symptom of an upper RTI. Other symptoms include
, a stuffy or runny nose, a sore throat, sneezing and muscle aches.

Lower respiratory tract infections

Common lower RTIs include:

  • flu (this can affect either the upper or lower respiratory tract)
  • bronchitis (infection of the airways)
  • pneumonia (infection of the lungs)
  • bronchiolitis (an infection of the small airways that affects babies and children younger than two)
  • tuberculosis (persistent bacterial infection of the lungs)

The main symptom of a lower RTI is also a cough, although it is usually more severe and you may bring up phlegm and mucus. Other possible symptoms are a tight feeling in your chest, increased rate of breathing, breathlessness and wheezing.

Caring for your symptoms at home

Most RTIs will pass without the need for treatment and you usually won't need to see your doctor. You can treat your symptoms at home by taking over-the-counter painkillers such as

, drinking plenty of fluids and resting.

Antibiotics are not recommended for most RTIs because they are only effective if the infection is caused by bacteria.

The symptoms of an upper RTI usually pass within one to two weeks.

When you should see your doctor

It's recommended you visit your doctor if:

  • you are feeling very unwell
  • your symptoms suggest that you may have pneumonia, for example if you are coughing up bloody mucus and phlegm
  • you have a pre-existing heart, lung, liver or kidney condition
  • you have a condition that affects your nervous system, such as
    multiple sclerosis
  • you have cystic fibrosis
  • you have a weakened immune system
  • you have a chronic lung condition, such as
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

It's also recommended you visit your doctor if you are 65 or over and have at least two of the factors listed below, or you are 80 or over and have one of the factors listed below:

  • you have been admitted to hospital at some point during the past year
  • you have
  • you have a history of heart failure
  • you are taking a type of steroid medication called glucocorticoid

You can also ask your doctor about any vaccines you can have to help protect against some RTIs. See the vaccinations guide for more information about these.

Important: Our website provides useful information but is not a substitute for medical advice. You should always seek the advice of your doctor when making decisions about your health.