What is a tapeworm?
A tapeworm is a parasite that can live in a person's intestines (bowel). They are known medically as cestodes.
Tapeworms tend to be flat, segmented and ribbon-like. Humans can catch them by:
- touching contaminated faeces (stools) and then placing their hands near their mouth
- swallowing food or water containing traces of contaminated faeces
- eating raw contaminated pork, beef or fish
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How do I know if I have a tapeworm?
You may not know you have a tapeworm infection until you see segments of the worm in your stools (poo). A tapeworm infection does not always cause symptoms, or the symptoms are often mistaken for another illness. A tapeworm infection typically causes stomach pain and sometimes vomiting and
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See your doctor if you think you notice segments of a tapeworm in your stools. They can diagnose an infection with a stool sample. Further tests may be needed depending on the type of tapeworm infection.
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Treating tapeworm infections
If a tapeworm grows in your intestine, you will need treatment to get rid of it. Some adult worms grow to 4.5-9m (15-30 feet) in length.
The beef tapeworm lives only in your intestines and is easily treated with tablets.
However, infection with other tapeworms or tapeworm larvae can lead to serious complications. Larvae infections are more difficult to treat because the larvae settle in other parts of your body outside your intestines.
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Preventing tapeworm infections
It is important to prepare food properly to avoid a tapeworm infection. Raw meat and fish in particular must be cooked and stored correctly. Vegetables and fruit should be washed thoroughly before they are eaten.
Your personal hygiene is even more important if you are in close contact with animals, or travelling in a developed country where tapeworm infections are more common.
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Who is affected
Tapeworm infections are most commonly seen in developing countries. In the UK, tapeworm infections in people are rare.
Symptoms of a tapeworm
People are often unaware they have a tapeworm infection. They may have no symptoms or very few symptoms, which are usually general.
Symptoms of a tapeworm infection
If you are infected with an adult tapeworm, you may see larvae (newly hatched worms) or segments from the tapeworm in your stools (poo). The segments contain tapeworm eggs.
Depending on the type of tapeworm, other symptoms could include:
- pain above the stomach or in the abdomen (tummy)
- nausea or vomiting
- weight loss
- loss of appetite
Infection with beef or pork tapeworms can cause an increase in appetite.
In rare cases, infection with the fish tapeworm can cause vitamin B12 deficiency, because the worm absorbs this vitamin. You need vitamin B12 to make red blood cells, so a deficiency can lead to anaemia (a reduced number of red blood cells).
Symptoms of a tapeworm larvae infection
Some types of tapeworm may not develop into the adult form in the intestine. Instead, their larvae (newly hatched worms) burrow through your intestine wall and enter your bloodstream. Then they can travel to, and settle in, other places around your body.
The symptoms of a tapeworm larvae infection vary, depending on the type of tapeworm, how severe the infection is and which part of the body is affected.
For example, the symptoms could include:
- discomfort or pain in the abdomen (tummy)
- coughing or pain in the lungs caused by an abscess
Causes of tapeworm infection
Causes of the different types of tapeworm infection are outlined below.
Pork and beef tapeworms
Infection with adult pork or beef tapeworms can be caused by eating raw or undercooked pork or beef that contain tapeworm larvae (newly hatched worms). The larvae grow into adult worms in your intestines (bowel).
In the case of the pork tapeworm, you can:
- swallow the eggs in food or water contaminated with human faeces (stools)
- transfer the eggs to your mouth after contact with an infected person or with contaminated clothing
The eggs then develop into larvae inside your body and invade other areas, such as your muscles and brain. This is why
Pork and beef tapeworms are more commonly found in developing areas of the world such as Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Southeast Asia, and Central and South America.
Infection with the fish tapeworm can be caused by eating raw or undercooked freshwater fish, such as salmon.
The fish tapeworm is more common in countries where people commonly eat raw fish, such as Eastern Europe, Scandinavian countries and Japan.
The eggs of a dwarf tapeworm can pass from one person to another through poor hygiene. You can also re-infect yourself through poor hygiene.
The eggs can hatch, develop into adults and reproduce in your intestines, without leaving your digestive system.
Insects, such as fleas or grain beetles, can also pick up the eggs by eating droppings from infected rats or mice, and pass the eggs onto humans if they are accidentally eaten.
Infection with the dwarf tapeworm usually affects children more than adults. It is also more common where people live in unhygienic conditions, particularly where there are fleas.
People can occasionally be infected with the dog tapeworm. This infection is called hydatid disease.
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Children can accidentally swallow the eggs of the dog tapeworm after touching dog faeces or through close contact with dogs.
The dog tapeworm is common in Asia, eastern Australia, Africa, Greece, southern Spain, South and North America and Turkey. It can be more common in rural areas, particularly sheep-farming areas.
In the UK, hydatid disease is found mainly in sheep-farming areas such as Herefordshire, mid-Wales and Scotland.
Tapeworm infection diagnosis
If you think you have a tapeworm infection, speak to your doctor for a diagnosis.
Infection with an adult tapeworm is diagnosed by finding eggs, larvae or segments from the tapeworm in your stools (poo). If the pork or beef tapeworm has caused the infection, any segments in your stool may be moving.
Your doctor will give you a sterile container and ask you to provide a sample of your stools. They will probably also check the area around your anus for signs of tapeworm eggs or larvae.
Diagnosing a tapeworm larvae infection
Depending on the type of tapeworm, infection with tapeworm larvae may be diagnosed using:
- imaging techniques, such as a chest
- tests to check if organs such as your liver are working normally
Treatment for a tapeworm infection
Adult tapeworm infections are treated with medication.
It is more complicated to treat infection with tapeworm larvae. This is because the larvae will have settled in parts of the body outside the intestines. By the time symptoms appear, the infection may have been present for many years.
Treating a tapeworm infection
Adult tapeworm infections are treated with anthelmintic medication. Anthelmintic medication:
- kills parasitic worms
- makes the worms pass out of your intestine in your stools (poo)
The medication works by dissolving or attacking the tapeworm. Little of the medication is absorbed by your digestive system. Your doctor will probably prescribe niclosamide or praziquantel, to be taken in a single dose.
Niclosamide and praziquantel are only available on a named-patient basis. This means that the medicine is not generally available on prescription, in this case because tapeworm infections in the UK are so rare. Your doctor or pharmacist may have to make special arrangements to get the medicine for you.
If treatment does not get rid of the tapeworm's neck and head, the whole tapeworm can grow again. For the treatment to be effective, the neck and head will need to come out of your intestine in your stools.
Some doctors suggest that using a
You will need to provide your doctor with stool samples for several months to check that the treatment has worked.
Hygiene while you are being treated
The medication only attacks the adult tapeworm and not its eggs, so hygiene is important.
It is possible to re-infect yourself while you are being treated. For example, you could pass tapeworm eggs in your stools and then transfer them to your mouth with your hands. Wash your hands thoroughly before eating and after using the toilet. Other members of your family or household should do the same.
Treating a tapeworm larvae infection
Your doctor may recommend anthelmintic medication to treat infection with tapeworm larvae. They may prescribe albendazole, also only available on a named-patient basis (see above).
Your doctor may continue to prescribe albendazole after the initial treatment to prevent cysts (tiny sacs of larvae) coming back.
In some cases, cysts containing tapeworm larvae may be removed by surgery. Your doctor may recommend injecting a cyst with medication such as formalin to kill the tapeworm larvae before the cyst is removed.
Sometimes, surgery to remove cysts may not be possible, for example if the cysts are close to major blood vessels or organs.
How to prevent a tapeworm infection
The best ways to prevent tapeworm infections are to prepare food properly and look after your personal hygiene, particularly around animals.
Human and animal waste
In the UK, human and animal waste (faeces) must be treated to prevent or remove health hazards such as tapeworms.
Regulations also govern how human and animal waste is disposed of, for example to prevent it polluting rivers and the sea, as well as freshwater lakes where fish are farmed.
These measures protect human health and help prevent animals, such as cows and sheep, coming into contact with tapeworm eggs, breaking the tapeworm's lifecycle.
It may be necessary to take special care after flooding, for example if human waste has contaminated land where animals graze or feed.
Cooking and freezing meat and fish
In the UK, meat goes through a strict inspection system before it can be sold. It must be examined by trained inspectors and approved as fit for people to eat (fit for human consumption). However, you still need to cook meat thoroughly before you eat it.
You can prevent tapeworm infection by cooking pork, beef or fish thoroughly and making sure it is cooked all the way through. This will kill any tapeworm eggs or larvae that may be present. It is also sensible to do this when cooking other meats, such as lamb, venison or hare.
Never allow raw meat or fish to come into contact with cooked meat or fish. A plate that has held raw meat or fish should be washed well before it is used for any other food, including cooked meat.
Avoid eating raw or undercooked pork or beef and raw freshwater fish such as salmon.
Freezing meat and fish at temperatures below -10C (14F) for at least 48 hours also kills tapeworm eggs and larvae. However, you should still cook meat and fish thoroughly before you eat it, even if it has been frozen.
In some cases, pickling may also kill tapeworm eggs and larvae, such as pickling fish in brine (salt water). However, the safest way to be sure is to cook the fish. Smoking or drying meat or fish are not considered reliable ways of killing tapeworm eggs or larvae.
Wash raw vegetables and fruit before you eat them, and clean your work surfaces and kitchen equipment thoroughly.
There are some other simple but important steps you can take to make sure your food is safe to eat. These steps can help prevent hazards to your health, such as tapeworms and food poisoning. For example, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water:
- before and after preparing or handling any food, including raw meat or fish
- before eating
- after using the toilet
It is also sensible to wash your hands with soap and water after close contact with farm animals or pets.
Handling food at work
If your job involves handling food, such as meat and fish, it is also important to practise good personal hygiene at work. This helps protect other people's health, as well as your own.
In the UK, food hygiene laws aim to protect public health. These laws cover all businesses that deal with food, including caterers, farmers, manufacturers, distributors and retailers.
Most food businesses need to register their premises with their local authority's environmental health service. Some food businesses, such as those that produce meat or milk and dairy products, need their premises approved by their local authority.
Employers running food businesses are also responsible for ensuring that staff who handle food are trained and supervised, to enable them to handle food safely.
Contact with animals
Avoid contact with animals if you know they are infected and keep children away from infected animals.
If you have contact with animals, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water afterwards.
If your dog has a tapeworm infection, make sure it is treated promptly. Follow your vet's advice about treating your dog regularly with de-worming medication and take special care with your own personal hygiene.
It is particularly important that working sheepdogs are regularly de-wormed, because sheep are a host for the dog tapeworm.
It is also wise to avoid feeding dogs with raw meat, including meat from sheep and offal.
Travel in developing countries
Most tapeworms are more commonly found in developing countries. This is because tapeworms can be spread when:
- sewage (liquid waste containing human or animal faeces) is untreated or not disposed of properly
- drinking water is contaminated with human or animal waste, and not clean or treated
If you are travelling in areas where this is the case, take special care with your personal hygiene. Also be careful about what you eat and drink. For example, make sure that:
- you cook meat and fish properly before you eat it
- your drinking water is clean
- you use clean (safe) water to wash all fruits and vegetables before you eat them
Complications of a tapeworm infection
The beef tapeworm lives only in your intestine and infection with it is easily treated. However, infection with other tapeworms or tapeworm larvae can lead to complications, which are outlined below.
In rare cases, infection with tapeworm larvae can be life threatening.
The larvae (cysticerci) of the pork tapeworm can cause cysticercosis. This is when cysts (tiny sacs) enclosing the larvae settle outside your intestines in other tissues and organs, such as your lungs, liver, eye or brain.
The cysts grow very slowly and cause inflammation (swelling). If they settle in an organ, such as the liver, they affect its normal function.
The cysts can become infected with bacteria (a secondary infection) and can burst. If a cyst bursts, its contents can cause a severe and sometimes life-threatening allergic reaction called
Neurocysticercosis is a particularly dangerous complication of infection with pork tapeworm larvae. It affects the brain and central nervous system, causing headaches and affecting sight. It can also cause
Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is caused by larvae of the dog tapeworm. The organs most commonly affected are the liver and lungs, although the larvae can also settle in the bones or brain.
Over many years, the larvae form hydatid cysts, which are filled with watery liquid containing many tapeworm larvae (called hydatid sand). The cysts are usually 1-7cm (1-3 inches) in size, although they can be as big as 30cm (12 inches).
Infection can begin during childhood, but symptoms may not show for many years, unless the main organs are affected.