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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are medications widely used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and bring down a high temperature (fever).

They're often used to relieve symptoms of headaches ,

painful periods
, sprains and strains , colds and flu , arthritis , and other causes of long-term pain.

Although NSAIDs are commonly used, they're not suitable for everyone and can sometimes cause troublesome side effects.

This information is a general overview of NSAIDs. For information about a specific medicine, you can look up your medication on the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) website.

This page covers:

  • Types of NSAIDs
  • Who can take NSAIDs
  • Side effects of NSAIDs
  • Interactions with other medicines
  • Food and alcohol
  • Overdoses of NSAIDs
  • Alternatives to NSAIDs

Types of NSAIDs

NSAIDs are available as tablets, capsules, suppositories (capsules inserted into the bottom), creams, gels and injections. Some can be bought over the counter from pharmacies, while others need a prescription.

The main types of NSAIDs include:

  • ibuprofen
  • naproxen
  • diclofenac
  • celecoxib
  • mefenamic acid
  • etoricoxib
  • indometacin
  • high-dose aspirin – low-dose aspirin isn't normally considered an NSAID

NSAIDs may be sold under these names or a brand name. They're all similarly effective, although you may find a particular one works best for you.

Who can take NSAIDs?

Most people can take NSAIDs, but some people need to be careful about taking them.

It's a good idea to ask a pharmacist or doctor for advice before taking an NSAID if you:

  • are over 65 years of age
  • are pregnant or trying for a baby
  • are breastfeeding
  • have asthma
  • have had an allergic reaction to NSAIDs in the past
  • have had stomach ulcers in the past
  • have any problems with your heart, liver, kidneys, blood pressure, circulation, or bowels
  • are taking other medications – see interactions with other medicines
  • are looking for medication for a child under 16 – any medication that contains aspirin should not be given to children under 16

NSAIDs might not necessarily need to be avoided in these cases, but they should only be used on the advice of a healthcare professional as there may be a higher risk of side effects.

If NSAIDs aren't suitable, your pharmacist or doctor may suggest alternatives to NSAIDs, such as


Side effects of NSAIDs

Like all medications, there's a risk of side effects from NSAIDs. These tend to be more common if you're taking high doses for a long time, or you're elderly or in poor general health. Over-the-counter NSAIDs generally have fewer side effects than stronger prescription medicines.

Possible side effects of NSAIDs include:

  • indigestion – including stomach aches , feeling sick and
  • stomach ulcers – these can cause internal bleeding and anaemia; extra medication, such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), may be prescribed to help reduce this risk
  • a hole forming in the wall of your stomach or bowel
  • headaches
  • drowsiness
  • dizziness
  • allergic reactions
  • in rare cases, problems with your liver, kidneys, or heart and circulation, such as heart failure ,
    heart attacks

If you experience any troublesome side effects, stop taking your medicine and tell your doctor.

Interactions with other medicines

Some NSAIDs can react unpredictably with other medications. This can affect how well either medicine works and increase the risk of side effects.

It's particularly important to get medical advice before taking an NSAID if you're already taking:

  • another NSAID
  • low-dose
    or direct oral anticoagulants(DOACs) – medicines used to prevent blood clots
  • ciclosporin – a medicine used to treat autoimmune conditions such as arthritis or
    ulcerative colitis
  • diuretics – medicines sometimes used to treat high blood pressure
  • lithium – a medicine used to treat
    bipolar disorder
    and severe depression
  • methotrexate – a medicine used to treat
    rheumatoid arthritis
  • a type of antidepressant medicine called a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

If you're not sure whether a medication you're taking can be taken at the same time as an NSAID, check the leaflet that comes with it, or ask a pharmacist or doctor for advice.

Food and alcohol

The leaflet that comes with your medicine should say whether you need to avoid any particular foods or drinks. Ask your pharmacist or doctor if you're not sure.

For information about a specific medicine, check the A-Z of medicine leaflets on the MHRA website.

Generally, you don't need to avoid any specific foods while taking NSAIDs. Tablets or capsules should normally be swallowed with water or food to stop them upsetting your stomach.

It's usually safe to drink alcohol while taking NSAIDs, but drinking alcohol excessively during treatment may irritate your stomach.

Overdoses of NSAIDs

Taking too much of an NSAID can be dangerous. This is known as taking an overdose.

Contact your doctor or local emergency services for advice immediately if you take too much of your medicine and you experience problems such as feeling or being sick, an upset stomach, or drowsiness.

Call the emergency services for an ambulance immediately if you or someone else experiences serious effects of an overdose, such as fits (seizures), breathing difficulties, or loss of consciousness.

Alternatives to NSAIDs

As NSAIDs can cause troublesome side effects, alternatives are often recommended first.

The main alternative for pain relief is

, which is available over the counter and is safe for most people to take.

NSAID creams and gels that you rub into your skin may be worth trying first if you have muscle or joint pain in a particular part of your body, as they tend to have fewer side effects than tablets or capsules.

Your doctor may also be able to recommend different medicines and therapies depending on the condition you have. For example, physiotherapy may help some people with muscle or joint pain.

Anti-inflammatory Anti-inflammatory medicines reduce swelling and inflammation. Fever A fever is when you have a high body temperature (over 38C or 100.4F). Inflammation Inflammation is the body's response to infection, irritation or injury, which causes redness, swelling, pain and sometimes a feeling of heat in the affected area. Joints Joints are the connection point between two bones that allow movement. Migraines A migraine is type of recurring headache. It is usually accompanied by nausea, vomiting and sensitivity to light and sound.

Important: Our website provides useful information but is not a substitute for medical advice. You should always seek the advice of your doctor when making decisions about your health.