Eating a healthy, varied diet in pregnancy will help you to get most of the vitamins and minerals you need.
But when you are pregnant you will need to take a folic acid supplement. It's recommended that you take:
- 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid each day – you should take this from before you are pregnant until you are 12 weeks pregnant
Do not take vitamin A supplements, or any supplements containing vitamin A (retinol), as too much could harm your baby. Always check the label.
Where to get pregnancy supplements
You can get supplements from pharmacies and supermarkets, or your doctor may be able to prescribe them for you. If you want to get your folic acid from a multivitamin tablet, make sure that the tablet does not contain vitamin A (or retinol).
Folic acid before and during pregnancy
You should take a 400 micrograms (mcg) folic acid tablet every day while you are trying to get pregnant and until you are 12 weeks pregnant.
Folic acid is important for pregnancy, as it can help to prevent birth defects known as neural tube defects, including spina bifida. If you didn't take folic acid before you conceived, you should start as soon as you find out that you are pregnant.
You should also eat foods that contain folate (the natural form of folic acid), such as green leafy vegetables. Some breakfast cereals and some fat spreads such as margarine may have folic acid added to them.
It's difficult to get the amount of folate recommended for pregnancy from food alone, which is why it is important to take a folic acid supplement.
Higher dose folic acid
Some women have an increased risk of having a pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect, and are advised to take a higher dose of 5 milligrams (mg) of folic acid each day until they are 12 weeks pregnant. Women have an increased risk if:
- they or their partner have a neural tube defect
- they have had a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect
- they or their partner have a family history of neural tube defects
- they have diabetes
In addition, women who are taking anti-epileptic medication should consult their doctor for advice, as they may also need to take a higher dose of folic acid. Find out about epilepsy, anti-epileptic medication and pregnancy.
If any of the above applies to you, talk to your doctor as they can prescribe a higher dose of folic acid. Your doctor or midwife may also recommend additional screening tests during your pregnancy.
Vitamin D in pregnancy
All adults, including pregnant and breastfeeding women, need 10 micrograms (10mcg) of vitamin D a day, and should consider taking a supplement containing this amount.
Vitamin D regulates the amount of calcium and phosphate in the body, which are needed to keep bones, teeth and muscles healthy.
Our bodies make vitamin D when our skin is exposed to summer sunlight (from late March/early April to the end of September). It's not known exactly how much time is needed in the sun to make enough vitamin D to meet the body's needs, but if you are out in the sun take care to cover up or protect your skin with sunscreen before you start to turn red or burn.
Vitamin D is also in some foods, including:
- oily fish (such as salmon, mackerel, herring and sardines)
- red meat
Vitamin D is added to all infant formula milk, as well as some breakfast cereals, fat spreads and non-dairy milk alternatives. The amounts added to these products can vary and might only be small.
As vitamin D is found only in a small number of foods, whether naturally or added, it might be difficult to get enough from foods alone. So everyone over the age of five years, including pregnant and breastfeeding women, should consider taking a daily supplement containing 10mcg of vitamin D.
Most people aged five years and over in the UK will probably get enough vitamin D from sunlight in the summer, so you might choose not to take a vitamin D supplement during these months.
You can get vitamin supplements containing vitamin D free of charge if you are pregnant or breastfeeding and qualify for the Healthy Start scheme.
If you have dark skin or always cover your skin
If you have dark skin (for example, if you are of African, African Caribbean or south Asian origin) or always cover your skin when outside, you may be at particular risk of not having enough vitamin D (vitamin D insufficiency). You may need to consider taking a daily supplement. Talk to your midwife or doctor if this applies to you.
Iron in pregnancy
If you are short of iron, you’ll probably get very tired and may suffer from anaemia. Lean meat, green leafy vegetables, dried fruit, and nuts contain iron. If you'd like to eat peanuts or foods that contain peanuts (such as peanut butter) during pregnancy, you can do so as part of a healthy balanced diet unless you're allergic to them, or your health professional advises you not to.
Many breakfast cereals have iron added. If the iron level in your blood becomes low, your doctor or midwife will advise you to take iron supplements.
Vitamin C in pregnancy
Vitamin C protects cells and helps to keep them healthy.
Vitamin C is found in a wide variety of fruit and vegetables, and a balanced diet can provide all the vitamin C you need. Good sources include:
- oranges and orange juice
- red and green peppers
- brussels sprouts
Calcium in pregnancy
Calcium is vital for making your baby's bones and teeth. Sources of calcium include:
- milk, cheese and yoghurt
- green leafy vegetables such as rocket, watercress or curly kale
- soya drinks with added calcium
- bread and anything made with fortified flour
- fish where you eat the bones – such as sardines and pilchards
You also need to know which foods to avoid in pregnancy.
Vegetarian, vegan and special diets in pregnancy
A varied and balanced vegetarian diet should give enough nutrients for you and your baby during pregnancy. However, you might find it more difficult to get enough iron and vitamin B12. Talk to your midwife or doctor about how to make sure you are getting enough of these important nutrients.
If you are vegan, or you follow a restricted diet because of food intolerance (for example, a gluten-free diet for coeliac disease) or for religious reasons, talk to your midwife or doctor.
Ask to be referred to a dietitian for advice on how to make sure you are getting all the nutrients you need for you and your baby.